Series: The Two Souls of Socialism

In his pamphlet The Two Souls of Socialism, Hal Draper makes the case that Karl Marx stood for "socialism from below" against other socialist currents.
  • Socialism and democracy

    This first installment of The Two Souls of Socialism introduces Karl Marx's idea of the self-emancipation of the working class.

  • Revolution from above?

    Even if their rhetoric is about freedom and liberty, the currents of socialism-from-above currents take the masses out of the equation.

  • Government by the people

    A new installment of The Two Souls of Socialism discusses the debates within German social democracy and the early American movement.

  • Socialism from below

    Workers' struggle from below has never been stopped by the theories from above--and it has changed the world many times.