Critical reading

A SocialistWorker.org blog
  • Ukraine: Imperial conflict led to MH17 tragedy

    The West has been quick to blame Russia for the downing of Malaysian Airlines flight 17, but the incident is just the latest tragedy resulting from imperial brinksmanship by the major powers in Ukraine and other parts of the world. --PG

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    MH17 and the new world disorder

    Source: Red Flag

    23 July 2014 | Alex Chklovski

    The Malaysia Airlines flight 17 tragedy is a new chapter in a conflagration that has cost more than 1,500 lives on both sides and displaced 100,000 civilians. It is a horrible, tragic waste. And it is the result of a conflict unleashed by the competing interests of the rich oligarchs in the region and the international jostling of Russia and the West.

    It is a conflict between a new right wing regime in Kiev eager to consolidate its rule and egged on by the US and the EU, and a group of armed adventurers eager to carve out their own space of influence by military means, looking toward and cautiously encouraged by Russia. The mass of ordinary people in Ukraine do not strongly back one side or the other, and largely stand by and attempt to deal with the path of destruction cut through their cities by the war.

  • How U.S. imperialism destroyed Iraq

    Dahr Jamail's devastating indictment of U.S. policy in the Middle East from Reagan to Obama. --PG

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    A Nation on the Brink: How America's Policies Sealed Iraq's Fate

    Source: Truthout

    Thursday, 17 July 2014 00:00
    By Dahr Jamail, Truthout/TomDispatch | News Analysis

    In a Truthout and TomDispatch collaboration, Truthout staff reporter Dahr Jamail has written a searing analysis covering the ongoing disaster in Iraq. Jamail has covered the story extensively for both Truthout and TomDispatch since 2005, and now provides this current perspective on how the legacy of the US invasion and occupation of Iraq continues to destroy lives.

  • Talking about abortion

    Courageous article by Sarah Grey. --PG

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    What We Don't Talk About When We Don't Talk About Abortion

    Source: Truthout

    Friday, 11 July 2014 10:25
    By Sarah Grey, Truthout | Op-Ed

    I had an abortion four years ago. I just recently decided to start talking about it.

    I didn't stay silent out of guilt; the abortion was very much the right decision. I didn't talk about my abortion because one doesn't talk about one's abortion. It just isn't done. You don't casually drop it during a playdate. Women tell their birth stories in graphic detail, but abortion? It's just not part of polite conversation.

    And yet - I'm now "that woman." Yup. I did it. And I'm going to keep doing it.

    Will my in-laws disown me? My friends? Will I lose potential clients by writing this under my own name? Will I get hate mail? Maybe. I know, too, that I am speaking out from a position of relative privilege: as a white ciswoman with a college degree and a self-employed career, my abortion doesn't fit me neatly into right-wing stereotypes. Nor am I in danger of being fired, beaten or murdered for having or for talking about an abortion - the stark reality for millions of women. I have considerable freedom to speak out. And I plan to use it.

  • A reply to Chomsky's critique of BDS

    The latest issue of The Nation contains a critique by Noam Chomsky of the Boycott, Divestment Sanctions movement against Israel launched by Palestinian activists. Here is a reply. --PG

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    Chomsky and BDS

    Source: Mondoweiss

    Tom Suarez on July 6, 2014

    Many people who have come to value the courageous and principled stands of Noam Chomsky regarding injustice and imperialism are surprised to learn of his opposition to most aspects of BDS. Precisely because of the stature and influence of this “father of modern linguistics”, it is especially important that his views be subject to the same rigor for which he himself is famous. As it turns out, the perplexing aspect of Professor Chomsky’s arguments vis a vis BDS is how precipitously they fail scrutiny.

  • Zionism = racism

    An honest assessment of Israel by the journalist Gideon Levy. Gilbert Achcar described the mindset behind this kind of racism a couple of years ago.

    For a person of Jewish descent, there are two ways of drawing lessons from the Nazi genocide of the European Jews: one leads to saying "Never again to us, the Jews"; the other "Never again" tout court.

    The former conclusion stems from a narrow ethnic outlook, reversing the Nazi perspective by taking the side of "the Jews" against the rest of the world. In both cases, "the Jews" are singled out as a particular group of people with extraordinary features: whereas the Nazis saw them as the embodiment of evil to the point of trying to annihilate them, the holders of the Jewish ethnocentric perspective believe that the defence of "Jewish" interests - which like all brands of collective interest, whether national or class or whatever, is a hotly disputed notion, with rare occasional unanimity on what it could mean - is a value superseding all others. In the name of this defence, they end up denying the humanity of the victims of Israel, the purported "State of the Jews", just as most oppressors throughout history have denied their victims' humanity.

    Now we are witnessing the latest violent consequences of this ideology. --PG

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    Our wretched Jewish state

    Source: Haaretz

    Now we know: In the Jewish state, there is pity and humane feelings only for Jews, rights only for the Chosen People. The Jewish state is only for Jews.

    By Gideon Levy
    Published 05:34 06.07.14

    The youths of the Jewish state are attacking Palestinians in the streets of Jerusalem, just like gentile youths used to attack Jews in the streets of Europe. The Israelis of the Jewish state are rampaging on social networks, displaying hatred and a lust for revenge, unprecedented in its diabolic scope. Some unknown people from the Jewish state, purely based on his ethnicity. These are the children of the nationalistic and racist generation – Netanyahu’s offspring.

    For five years now, they have been hearing nothing but incitement, scaremongering and supremacy over Arabs from this generation’s true instructor, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Not one humane word, no commiseration or equal treatment.

  • Dave Zirin on Suárez, FIFA and the World Cup

    For more of Dave Zirin's essential commentary on the World Cup, visit his website Edge of Sports. --PG

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    Luis Suárez May Bite, but FIFA Sucks Blood

    Source: The Nation

    Dave Zirin on June 25, 2014 - 2:13 AM ET

    This is not a pro–Luis Suárez column. This is not an article in defense of his taking a chomp out of Italy’s Giorgio Chiellini during Uruguay’s 1-0 World Cup victory. This is not a piece that will make apologies for Mr. Suárez, who has some longstanding issues when it comes to getting peckish with opponents, so much so, it was reported that 167 people won a “prop bet” that he would bite someone during the World Cup.

    Suárez should be suspended because what he did should not be a part of the sport and is, frankly, kind of gross. But for the sports media to climb their branded pulpits and say that Suárez demands suspension precisely because young, impressionable, wide-eyed youngsters the world over would emulate him and start adopting a particular kind of paleo diet on the pitch, is absurd.

  • David Harvey reviews Thomas Piketty

    Short, clear discussion of Thomas Piketty's important book Capital in the 21st Century that explains both why it is valuable and why it fails to answer the underlying questions about capitalism that Marx addressed. --PG

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    Afterthoughts on Piketty’s Capital

    Source: davidharvey.org

    May 17, 2014

    David Harvey

    Thomas Piketty has written a book called Capital that has caused quite a stir. He advocates progressive taxation and a global wealth tax as the only way to counter the trend towards the creation of a “patrimonial” form of capitalism marked by what he dubs “terrifying” inequalities of wealth and income. He also documents in excruciating and hard to rebut detail how social inequality of both wealth and income has evolved over the last two centuries, with particular emphasis on the role of wealth. He demolishes the widely-held view that free market capitalism spreads the wealth around and that it is the great bulwark for the defense of individual liberties and freedoms. Free-market capitalism, in the absence of any major redistributive interventions on the part of the state, Piketty shows, produces anti-democratic oligarchies. This demonstration has given sustenance to liberal outrage as it drives the Wall Street Journal apoplectic.

  • Eleanor Marx and socialist feminism

    The author of a new biography of Karl Marx's youngest daughter, Eleanor, writes about her subject. There is a review of the book here. --PG

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    The making of a Marx

    Source: The Independent

    The life of Eleanor Marx, the mother of socialist feminism

    Learning at her father’s knee, Eleanor Marx changed the world

    Rachel Holmes

    Sunday 04 May 2014

    When I set out to write the life of Eleanor Marx in 2006 some friends worried that yet again I’d been seduced by an unfashionable and overly abstruse biographical subject. Either that, or they just said: “Who?” A Marx? The mother of socialist feminism? It didn’t sound catchy in our new century.

    Yet Eleanor Marx is one of British history’s great heroes. Born in 1855 in a Soho garret to hard up German immigrant exiles, her arrival was initially a disappointment to her father. He wanted a boy. By her first birthday Eleanor had become his favourite. She was nicknamed Tussy, to rhyme, her parents said, with “pussy” not “fussy”. Cats she adored; fussy she wasn’t. She loved Shakespeare, Ibsen, both the Shelleys, good poetry, bad puns and champagne. She would be delighted to know that we can claim her as the first self-avowed champagne socialist.

  • Should Marx and Engels be copyrighted?

    The UK publisher Lawrence & Wishart has instructed the Marxist Internet Archive (MIA) to remove material from the Marx-Engels Collected Works (MECW) from its website by the end of this month (just in time for International Workers' Day on May 1). As Andrew Leonard asks at Salon, quoting the introduction to Volume 1 of MECW, 'I wonder — just how angry would Karl Marx get if he learned that the publisher of his collected works, in the name of maximizing profits, was using copyright law to hinder the cause of “equipping the working-class movement with the scientific ideology… for the realization… of communism”?' The publisher has justified its decision here. MIA has responded here. You can sign a petition protesting this outrageous decision here. --PG

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    Karlo Marx and Fredrich Engels / Came to the checkout at the 7-11

    Source: Crooked Timber

    by Scott McLemee on April 24, 2014

    Henry has nudged me a little, every so often, towards participating more in the life of Crooked Timber—or participating at all, really, since it’s been almost four years since my last posting. Fair enough. And so now, without further ado: Here I am again, ready to complain.

    The Marxist Internet Archive (marxists.org) is a vast and growing resource, run entirely by donated labor, and as polylingual as circumstances permit. (Do they have Trotsky in Tagalog? Indeed they do.) Yesterday, a notice appeared in the Archive’s Facebook group, and also on its homepage, saying that Lawrence & Wishart’s lawyers demand removal of material from the Marx-Engels Collected Works: “Accordingly, from 30th April 2014, no material from MECW is available from marxists.org. English translations of Marx and Engels from other sources will continue to be available.”

  • Why localism isn't the solution

    Very clear analysis of the failure of localism. The links have some useful resources. --PG

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    Localism? I don't buy it

    Source: Al Jazeera

    Localist movements fail by treating a symptom of capitalism, the crippling of local communities, as if it's the disease.

    Last updated: 07 Apr 2014 07:20

    Stan Cox

    Humanity's failure so far to deal with multiple crises - planet-wide ecological degradation, domination by a transnational economic elite, the deepening misery that afflicts billions in both rich and poor nations - has prompted increasing interest in local economies as less intimidating arenas where much-needed change might be more readily achieved.

  • U.S. education—racist to the core

    A comprenhensive Department of Education survey confirms the massive racial divide in the U.S. K-12 education system, with discrimination starting when children are as young as four-years old. More from the NYT on this topic here. --PG

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    School Data Finds Pattern of Inequality Along Racial Lines

    Source: New York Times

    By MOTOKO RICH MARCH 21, 2014

    Racial minorities are more likely than white students to be suspended from school, to have less access to rigorous math and science classes, and to be taught by lower-paid teachers with less experience, according to comprehensive data released Friday by the Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights.

    In the first analysis in nearly 15 years of information from all of the country’s 97,000 public schools, the Education Department found a pattern of inequality on a number of fronts, with race as the dividing factor.

    Black students are suspended and expelled at three times the rate of white students. A quarter of high schools with the highest percentage of black and Latino students do not offer any Algebra II courses, while a third of those schools do not have any chemistry classes. Black students are more than four times as likely as white students — and Latino students are twice as likely — to attend schools where one out of every five teachers does not meet all state teaching requirements.

  • Paul Ryan pulls out his racist dog whistle

    Coded racism (famously explained in a 1981 interview with Republican consultant and later RNC chair Lee Atwater) continues to be central to conservative politics in the US. More on Ryan here and here. More by López here. --PG

    UPDATE: More here and here.

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    Is Paul Ryan Racist?

    Source: Politico

    He insists not, but I hope he’s learned his lesson.

    By IAN HANEY LÓPEZ

    March 14, 2014

    Paul Ryan triggered a firestorm of recrimination this week. Speaking recently on Bill Bennett’s Morning in America radio program, the Wisconsin Republican and self-styled budget wonk linked poverty to “this tailspin of culture, in our inner cities in particular, of men not working and just generations of men not even thinking about working or learning the value and the culture of work.”

    Setting aside the factual claim—the notion that poverty is especially concentrated in America’s inner cities is an increasingly antiquated one—these comments elicited a quick and forceful rebuke from Rep. Barbara Lee (D-Calif.), who decried them as “a thinly veiled racial attack.” She explained: “[W]hen Mr. Ryan says ‘inner city,’ when he says, ‘culture,’ these are simply code words for what he really means: ‘black.’”

  • Capitalism and militarism

    Why capitalism can't break its addiction to military spending. --PG

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    Global military spending is now an integral part of capitalism

    Source: The Guardian

    The idea of a 'peace dividend' is gone – high levels of military spending are an entrenched part of the global landscape

    Richard Seymour
    Friday 7 March 2014 13.30 EST

    China's surge in military spending gains headlines, partly because of the ominous implications regarding its regional contest with Japan, but it's the deeper structures of military spending in general that are far more compelling.

  • U.S. hypocrisy over Ukraine

    “You just don’t invade another country on phony pretext in order to assert your interests … This is an act of aggression that is completely trumped up in terms of its pretext. It’s really 19th century behavior in the 21st century.” —John Kerry. You can't make this stuff up. More here and here. --PG

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    Heard the One About Obama Denouncing a Breach of International Law?

    Source: Common Dreams

    Published on Monday, March 3, 2014

    by Norman Solomon

    International law is suddenly very popular in Washington. President Obama responded to Russian military intervention in the Crimea by accusing Russia of a “breach of international law.” Secretary of State John Kerry followed up by declaring that Russia is “in direct, overt violation of international law.”

    Unfortunately, during the last five years, no world leader has done more to undermine international law than Barack Obama. He treats it with rhetorical adulation and behavioral contempt, helping to further normalize a might-makes-right approach to global affairs that is the antithesis of international law.

    Fifty years ago, another former law professor, Senator Wayne Morse, condemned such arrogance of power. “I don’t know why we think, just because we’re mighty, that we have the right to try to substitute might for right,” Morse said on national TV in 1964. “And that’s the American policy in Southeast Asia—just as unsound when we do it as when Russia does it.”

  • What's happening in Ukraine?

    Helpful analysis of the confusing situation in Ukraine. There is a collection of links on the site for further information. --PG

    UPDATE: Following President Yanukovych's dramatic departure from Kiev, Where next for Ukraine?

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    Blood on the streets in Ukraine

    Source: rs21

    21 February 2014

    Ben Neal reports on the continuing protests in Ukraine

    Dozens of people have been killed this week in Ukraine as a result of a brutal government assault on the opposition held “Euromaidan” (Euro square), or Independence Square, in Kiev. In addition hundreds of people have been injured, some of them seriously.

    At least 70 people, including 12 members of the security forces, are known to have been killed since Tuesday, and around 1000 have been injured, some seriously. Police managed to eject protesters from the central trade union building, which was being used as a headquarters for the revolution, and in the process the building was set on fire.

  • Michael Löwy on ecosocialism

    From a very welcome special issue of New Politics on "The Left and the Environmental Crisis." --PG

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    Ecosocialism: Putting on the Brakes Before Going Over the Cliff

    Source: New Politics

    by Michael Löwy

    Winter 2014 Vol:XIV-4 Whole #: 56

    Ecosocialism is an attempt to provide a radical, civilizational alternative to capitalism, rooted in the basic arguments of the ecological movement, and in the Marxist critique of political economy. It opposes to capitalism’s destructive progress (Marx) an economic policy founded on non-monetary and extra-economic criteria: social needs and ecological equilibrium. This dialectical synthesis, attempted by a broad spectrum of authors, from James O’Connor to Joel Kovel and John Bellamy Foster, and from André Gorz (in his early writings) to Elmar Altvater, is at the same time a critique of “market ecology,” which does not challenge the capitalist system, as well as of “productivist socialism,” which ignores the issue of natural limits.

  • Home healthcare provider hiding millions

    Creative accounting by some "non-profit" corporations is designed to screw workers. --PG

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    Some Companies Claim to Be Broke, But Keep Millions in Offshore Accounts

    Source: PolicyMic

    By Peter Rugh 3 hours ago

    What is a not-for-profit corporation doing with nearly $200 million in offshore holdings? That's a question thousands of nurses who are preparing to go on strike, together with their patients, might want answered.

    The nation's largest home-care provider, Visiting Nurse Services (VNS), is locked in a battle with the nurses over their contract. VNS wants to make dramatic cuts to employee benefits because management claims the company is $70 million in debt. However, a close look at its tax returns tells a much different story.

    Last week, the United Federation of Teachers, which represents the caregivers, notified VNS of plans to walk out when their contract expires on February 1, unless an eleventh hour deal is struck. The central issue is attempts by VNS to eliminate nurses' health care and pensions, according to sources briefed at an emergency union meeting.

  • Cuba at the crossroads

    Sam Farber analyzes recent political developments in Cuba and reflects on prospects for the left. For more background, see his book Cuba Since the Revolution of 1959: A Critical Assessment. --PG

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    The Future of the Cuban Revolution

    Source: Jacobin

    1.5.14

    by Samuel Farber

    Since Raúl Castro assumed power in 2006 promising reforms, Cuban politics has seen the slow emergence of new tendencies and debates. The prospects for the country’s left, however, remain uncertain.

    Cuba stands at a crossroads.

    55 years after its revolution overthrowing the Batista dictatorship, its original generation of leadership has begun to pass away and the future of its “socialist” project remains uncertain. Will it experience capitalist “shock therapy” like the countries of the former Eastern bloc? Will it follow the state-capitalist road established in China and Vietnam? Will economic liberalization be accompanied, as some claim, by an expansion of political freedoms and tolerance for dissent? A socialist democracy may not be in the cards; if so, what does that mean for the nascent critical left on the island?

  • William Blum on U.S. foreign policy

    William Blum on the underlying motives of U.S. foreign policy. --PG

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    "Our Leaders Do Not Mean Well"

    Source: Truthout

    Saturday, 04 January 2014 09:20
    By Daniel Falcone, Truthout | Opinion

    William Blum is an American author, critic of American foreign policy and retired employee of the US State Department. He is the author of numerous books and articles discussing uncoverings of the Central Intelligence Agency and writes about our involvement in worldwide terror operations, often in the name of democracy. Blum is the author of the famous book Killing Hope: US Military and CIA Interventions since World War II (Common Courage Press). The book enjoyed remarkable success, becoming required reading for students and professions in numerous fields. Professor Noam Chomsky said of the book, “It is far and away the best book on the topic.” The book is astounding, as Blum breaks down the post-war CIA in more than 50 fascinating chapters. Actions everywhere from Albania to Zaire are discussed in the book. I met with William Blum in early December in Washington, DC.

  • The legacy of Nelson Mandela

    A balanced account of a great freedom fighter who ultimately made his peace with the system and whose policies in power reinforced inequality in South Africa. More here, here and here. --PG

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    Nelson Mandela 1918-2013

    Source: Red Flag

    Tom Bramble | 06-Dec-2013

    The death of Nelson Mandela closes the life of a heroic resistance figure who devoted his very being to the struggle against apartheid even though this came at immense personal cost. Mandela was, also, however, the saviour of South African capitalism, which condemned so many of his countrymen and women to continuing terrible hardship even after the destruction of the apartheid regime. His broad popularity in South Africa, ranging from the pauper to the plutocrat, cannot be understood without comprehension of both these facts.

    Mandela was loved by the masses because of his immense dedication to and sacrifice for the cause, epitomised by the 27 years he spent in the regime’s rotten jails, 27 long years in which he grew to be an old man.

    For the first 18 years of his imprisonment, Mandela was held on Robben Island off Cape Town, cut off from all that he had known. His first cell was a dank 2.4m by 2.1 m with only a straw mat to sleep on.

  • Chomsky on the U.S.-Iran deal

    The U.S. and Israel are the real rogue states in the Middle East. --PG

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    The "Axis of Evil," Revisited

    Source: Truthout

    Wednesday, 04 December 2013 10:44

    By Noam Chomsky, Truthout | Op-Ed

    An interim agreement on Iran's nuclear policies that will provide a six-month period for substantive negotiations was announced on Nov. 24.

    Michael Gordon, a reporter for The New York Times, wrote, "It was the first time in nearly a decade, American officials said, that an international agreement had been reached to halt much of Iran's nuclear program and roll some elements of it back."

    The United States moved at once to impose severe penalties on a Swiss firm that had violated U.S.-imposed sanctions. "The timing of the announcement seemed to be partly intended to send a signal that the Obama administration still considers Iran subject to economic isolation," Rick Gladstone explained in The Times.

    The "landmark accord" indeed includes significant Iranian concessions - though nothing comparable from the United States, which merely agreed to temporarily limit its punishment of Iran.

  • To improve education, end poverty

    Also, pay teachers more. --PG

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    Teachers Were Never The Problem

    Source: In These Times

    Web Only// Features » November 8, 2013

    Poverty still lies at the root of the U.S. ‘education crisis.’

    BY David Sirota

    Google the phrase “education crisis” and you'll be hit with a glut of articles, blog posts and think tank reports claiming the entire American school system is facing an emergency. Much of this agitprop additionally asserts that teachers unions are the primary cause of the alleged problem. Not surprisingly, the fabulists pushing these narratives are often backed by anti-public school conservatives and anti-union plutocrats. But a little-noticed study released last week provides yet more confirmation that neither the “education crisis” meme or the “evil teachers' union” narrative is accurate.

    Before looking at that study, consider some of the ways we already know that the dominant storyline about education is, indeed, baseless propaganda.

  • Right wing may steal Honduran election

    The right wing Nationalist Party may be on the verge of stealing the presidential election in Honduras, with the complicity of the Obama administration, which is determined to use the tiny Central American country as a base to continue projecting U.S. power in the region. More background on the events here, here and here. --PG

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    Violence Against Demonstrators Follows Contested Result in Honduras Elections

    Source: Truthout

    Wednesday, 27 November 2013 13:10

    By Sarah Blaskey and Jesse Chapman, Truthout | News

    "What we want is to defend our rights and that they be respected. And the only way that our rights will be respected is to perform our duty, and our duty is to be here [protesting]," said one young man, eyes still streaming from the clouds of teargas that engulfed his school. 


    Jose (name changed for security purposes) is a student of the Autonomous University in Tegucigalpa. He and a few thousand of his fellow students were tear-gassed and beaten November 26, 2013, when they peacefully demonstrated, alleging fraud in the presidential election that took place two days earlier in Honduras. 


  • Pentagon has lost track of $8.5 trillion

    Unbelievable waste, but the ruling class wants to reduce the budget deficit by slashing food stamps and attacking Social Security. --PG

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    Want to Cut Government Waste? Find the $8.5 Trillion the Pentagon Can’t Account For

    Source: Yahoo! Finance

    By Lauren Lyster | Daily Ticker – Mon, Nov 25, 2013 9:23 AM EST

    If you thought the botched rollout of Obamacare, the government shutdown, or the sequester represented Washington dysfunction at its worst, wait until you hear about the taxpayer waste at the Defense Department.

    Special Enterprise Reporter Scot Paltrow unearthed the “high cost of the Pentagon’s bad bookkeeping” in a Reuters investigation. It amounts to $8.5 trillion in taxpayer money doled out by Congress to the Pentagon since 1996 that has never been accounted for. (The year 1996 was the first that the Pentagon should have been audited under a law requiring audits of all government departments. Oh, and by the way, the Pentagon is the only federal agency that has not complied with this law.)

    We talk to Paltrow in the accompanying video about his findings.

  • U.N. climate talks lead nowhere again

    Chris Williams explains the continued failure of world leaders to deal with the biggest problem faced by humanity. --PG

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    Warsaw Climate Talks Go Up in Smoke

    Source: Truthout

    Thursday, 21 November 2013 10:29
    By Chris Williams, Truthout | News Analysis

    "The smell of inaction" is how Dipti Bhatnagar, Friends of the Earth Mozambique's international program director for climate justice and energy, summed up the atmosphere inside the giant Narodowy Stadium after the first week of the latest round of international climate negotiations, Conference of the Parties, otherwise known as COP 19, taking place Nov 11-22, 2013, in Warsaw.

    Given that this is the 19th consecutive year of annual negotiations and with a meaningful global treaty more distant now than it was almost two decades ago, Bhatnagar's olfactory deduction seems likely to be highly accurate.

    As the pervasive smell of inaction seeped like a suffocating gas throughout the inside of the conference, outside, the choking effects of coal smoke waft from all corners of a country that obtains 90 percent of its electricity from coal and whose government has pledged to keep it that way until 2060.

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